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Uganda Geography


A landlocked country in east-central Africa, situated north and northwest of Lake Victoria, Uganda has a total area of 236,040 km² (91,136 mi²), of which 36,330 km² (14,027 mi²) is inland water. Comparatively, the area occupied by Uganda is slightly smaller than the state of Oregon. It extends 787 km (489 mi) north-northeast to south-southwest and 486 km (302 mi) east-southeast to west-northwest. Bounded on the north by Sudan, on the east by Kenya, on the south by Tanzania and Rwanda, and on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC). Uganda has a total boundary length of 2,698 km (1,676 mi).

The greater part of Uganda consists of a plateau 800 to 2,000 m (2,600-6,600 ft) in height. Along the western border, in the Ruwenzori Mountains, Margherita Peak reaches a height of 5,109 m (16,762 ft), while on the eastern frontier Mount Elgon rises to 4,321 m (14,178 ft). By contrast, the Western Rift Valley, which runs from north to south through the western half of the country, is below 910 m (3,000 ft) on the surface of Lake Edward and Lake George and 621 m (2,036 ft) on the surface of Lake Albert (L. Mobutu Sese Seko). The White Nile has its source in Lake Victoria; as the Victoria Nile, it runs northward through Lake Kyoga and then westward to Lake Albert, from which it emerges as the Albert Nile to resume its northward course to the Sudan.

Although Uganda is on the equator, its climate is warm rather than hot, and temperatures vary little throughout the year. Most of the territory receives an annual rainfall of at least 100 cm (40 in). At Entebbe, mean annual rainfall is 162 cm (64 in); in the northeast, it is only 69 cm (27 in). Temperature generally varies by altitude; on Lake Albert, the mean annual maximum is 29°C (84°F) and the mean annual minimum 22°C (72°F). At Kabale in the southwest, 1,250 m (4,100 ft) higher, the mean annual maximum is 23°C (73°F), and the mean annual minimum 10°C (50°F). At Kampala, these extremes are 27°C (81°F) and 17°C (63°F).


Location :
Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Geographic coordinates :
1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references :

Area :
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km

Area - comparative :
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries :
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km

Coastline :
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims :
none (landlocked)

Climate :
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain :
mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes :
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural resources :
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Land use :
arable land: 21.57%
permanent crops: 8.92%
other: 69.51% (2005)

Irrigated land :
90 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources :
66 cu km (1970)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) :
total: 0.3 cu km/yr (43%/17%/40%)
per capita: 10 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards :

Environment - current issues :
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements :
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note :
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers





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